The case of Ethiopia's Amhara people.

Genetic Adaptation to High Altitude

Resilience, Endurance and Perseverance: the case of Ethiopia’s Amhar  people.
Girma Berhanu (Professor)

Discussions about the sources of development in general and of the origin and dynamics of human cognitive development, have always been controversial and remain unresolved. The dispute centers on the degree to which our character or behaviors are expressions of inborn traits and the extent to which we are shaped by our experience, sociohistorical and physical, and cultural environment, and socialization. Is learning or civilized behavior (decency, humanity, ethical and moral acquisition) a reflection of intellectual capacity (intelligence)? Or is intelligence in some measure the product of learning? Does intelligence exist? If so, how can we objectify, record, and quantify it? How do environmental manipulations such as cognitive skills training and instructional manipulation moderate the influence of intelligence on learning and of learning on intelligence? Above all, how do we explain the relationship between culture and mind? How does “mind/behavior” originate? Addressing these questions is a challenging task and the academic arena seems to be sharply divided. Further, the issue is a volatile one because of its far-reaching social, economic, political, ideological, psychological, and educational implications. This is indisputably an area that needs further research and serious deliberation.

The issue of sources of development has also given rise

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